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The names also require some sort of ranking. The most prominent position, heading the list or in last place, is usually occupied by the team leader often the author.
My experience is that the team leader is the person best suited to decide this ranking. He or she will be anxious to retain the coworkers within the team for forthcoming trials and has therefore a self-interest in making the ranking fair.
Are the coworkers then happy with the ranking? Usually not, because many tend to overestimate their own particular contribution.
When authors of a multiauthor paper were asked to assess their own contribution, the total contribution came to percent Broad !
Such an approach was suggested at a conference on authorship in Nottingham, England, in Godlee Svend Kreiner did the statistical analysis.
Bent Ottesen was responsible for overall supervision. Readers will also be served by such a list. Isabel Moe. A question of coauthorship Here is a question from a course participant concerning coauthorship: A multidisciplinary study included, among many other things, a psychiatric evaluation of groups of patients, according to a standardized method.
The psychiatrist was coauthor of a number of articles. Maybe you should list him as a coauthor and also ask him to check the manuscripts.
He might be able to contribute valuable ideas on parts of the papers dealing with his specialty. However, you honestly feel that the psychiatrist has already received his due share of the proceeds.
You also believe that you no longer require his expertise. If so, in future papers, you might thank him in the acknowledgments. A third way might be that you talk the situation over with the psychiatrist.
But apparently this approach is blocked; otherwise you would have used it already. This discussion shows how tricky it can be to decide on authorship.
Authors 57 11 Abstract By writing a working abstract at an early stage, you will provide yourself with a framework for the rest of the article.
It will guide you in deciding what to include and what to omit, thus sparing you tedious rewriting.
Let us consider here what to include. In both types of abstract, the conventional unstructured and the formally structured, the same four basic sections are required: Background including the purpose of the study , Methods, Results, and Conclusions.
In the worst instance, the abstract contains neither background nor conclusion. Many abstracts written in the conventional manner are uninformative and cause editors much unnecessary editorial trouble.
They were homogeneously divided into four groups. Most journals reporting laboratory studies use the conventional abstract, and it is usually applied to Case Reports and Brief Communications.
Clinical journals, however, often require a structured abstract for full-length papers. Here is such an abstract of the classic The chromosome number of man by Tjio and Levan The paper was published before abstract sections had come into common use.
So, based on the content of that paper, I have composed a structured abstract in order to show what could be included.
It is generally accepted that the chromosome number in humans is In this study, cultured cells were treated with solutions that spread the chromosomes and made them easier to count.
Cultured cells from human embryonic lung were treated with both colchicine and hypotonic solution. Among mitoses counted, all but 4 had a chromosome number of The results suggest that the chromosome number in humans is 46, not In several clinical journals the structured abstract is more detailed, with the methods section split into, for example, Design, Setting, Patients, Intervention, and Measurement.
The Instructions for Authors will tell you what headings to use, if your target journal requires a structured abstract.
Abstract 59 The structured abstract has been criticized. It is longer than the abstract in standard format.
Its imposed style may be a strait-jacket constraining the author, inhibiting creativity. Its rigid uniformity may bore the reader. And that is not the intention.
Finally, if you cannot avoid an abbreviation in the abstract, you must explain it, the reason being that the abstract will stand alone in abstracting publications.
To determine why, contributions to three issues of the New England Journal of Medicine were studied and the prose analyzed.
It is succinctly written in only seven words. Introduction 61 These introductions, like many other well-written introductions, contain a brief description of two items: 1 the problem; 2 the proposed solution.
These platitudes could be omitted ruthlessly, as could also the empty words of the next sentence.
Only in the third sentence does the author come to the point: An important risk factor for developing Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease COPD is chronic cigarette smoking 1.
I advised the author to open the introduction with the third sentence. The reference 1 should be to a carefully chosen review article describing the problem.
You probably need more than two or three sentences for your introduction, but it should preferably not exceed one page in length typed double-spaced.
More space may be required for certain topics, such as occupational science, medical ethics, and nursing and health care.
Check the current version of the Instruction for Authors. If you have previously published part of the work other than in the form of a congress abstract, you should say so in a few words at the end of the introduction.
Unless a previously published method is generally known, the reader will appreciate being told its essential features.
An experienced colleague can help to remove excess detail. The door led from a huge bicycle garage reserved for workers at the hospital into the elevator hall.
When patients have a free choice, few studies have a consent rate of percent. Probably you are referring only to those patients who had already been enrolled in the study.
If that is the case, say so. Then state in the results section how many patients declined to participate. If you know their reasons for doing so, these should be reported too.
Let us now take a closer look at one particular type of study, the randomized controlled trial. When properly conducted, it is the most reliable way of comparing treatments.
However, reports of such trials frequently omit important features of the study design. We shall consider some of them. Omissions in reporting of randomized controlled trials Randomization Randomization means that subjects are allocated to the treatment and control groups by chance at random.
But it is inadequate just to say that a study was randomized, without telling how. The reason is that all methods of randomization are susceptible to conscious or unconscious manipulation by investigators, the degree of which varies from one method to the other.
They should be avoided. A computer program generated the randomisation schedule. Blinding Specify the blinding method used.
Moreover, how should we denote blindness in a study in which only the evaluators are masked, as was the case in the famous trial of streptomycin in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis Medical Research Council This is a careful reporting of how blindness was accomplished.
This calculation should be reported. Here is an example from a study on the healing of leg ulcers, published in the BMJ Morell et al.
However, the number of patients needed in a study refers to the number of patients who complete the trial, rather than the number who start it.
Sample-size calculation is so important a part of the study design that it deserves a separate subheading. The number of dogs needed was calculated, and the random allocation of the dogs to the treatment and control groups was described.
In most studies on animals, such information is lacking. A checklist In , two expert groups independently published detailed checklists for the reporting of randomized controlled trials.
It states in detail which items must be included in a report Begg et al. This approach spares us tedious repetition. Participant flow and follow-up Figure Reproduced, with permission, from K.
Sliwa, D. Skudicky, G. Candy, T. Wisenbaugh, P. Figure Copyright , American Medical Association. Only of the 25 potential subjects were selected.
In the main text of this paper, the reasons for exclusion were given in detail. Such data can help readers to assess potential bias in patient selection.
Dropouts A high rate of withdrawal say 15 percent or more can invalidate the conclusions of the study Lang and Secic , The number of dropouts and their reasons for withdrawal should be reported for each group separately.
This is often neglected and can result in incorrect reporting. Hence, all randomized participants should be analyzed in the groups they were originally allocated to, including even those patients who did not receive the intended treatment and even those who, for some reason, subsequently received the treatment of the alternative group.
They could be patients who did not return because they had recovered, or because they had died, or who were still sick and did not wish to burden the doctor with an unsatisfactory outcome.
Describe their characteristics as at the last examination. Details of randomized participants In a manuscript under preparation, I saw a detailed description of the study group, but the controls were presented as follows: A control group of sixteen healthy volunteers underwent investigation in the same manner.
The controls should be described just as thoroughly as the subjects of the treated or exposed group, as in the following table from a study on the duration of pregnancy after laser conization of the cervix.
Table Source: Reprinted from Raio et al. Be cautious, however, when comparing baseline characteristics with the use of statistical tests.
Then, state in the main text what you have found. Results 71 Study outcome Try not to repeat tediously in the text what is already clear from a perusal of the tables.
Tables are used for reporting the details of the outcome. An exact P value would have made the presentation even more informative.
Salam, U. Dhar, W. Khan, M. Bennish, Randomised comparison of ciprofloxacin suspension and pivmecillinam for childhood shigellosis.
It could be the most important part of the study. Does the drug cause so much nausea that patients will not take it? If no adverse reactions were found, say so.
From motorcycle dispatch riders he received intelligence reports from other parts of the front.
When a rider began reading out the dispatch from the very beginning, Patton most often asked him to go directly to the bottom line. Apparently, because that is where the reader can usually get a comprehensive conclusion of the results.
But there is no generally accepted form on how to arrange the various parts leading up to the conclusion. So to help you I have chosen, as a model, an especially well-designed discussion in a paper by Logan et al.
Based on this I have composed a structure for the discussion section that can be used as a guide when writing this section.
It has four parts: Main message, Critical assessment, Comparison with other studies, and Conclusions.
Let us discuss them step by step. Imagine General Patton listening to this! Now, compare this with the next example in which Logan et al.
So, here is the right place to present the strengths and weaknesses of the study. Discussion 75 Logan et al. Then consider studies less compatible with yours, and so on.
Having completed such a comparison, Logan et al. In the following I will set out further suggestions for writing the discussion section.
So, in what way was this keen-sighted? Reading the measuring-tape? Then tell the reader why this approach ought to be superior.
The reference trick At this point, let us assume that you have completed your study after three years of hard work.
When you now scan the latest issue of your target journal, you come across a paper on a subject very similar to yours; same questions, same answers.
Your citation should instead be inserted in the introduction section, as Reference 1 or 2. Here is an example of a generous way of handling this problem.
Two researchers, Karman and Potts , had developed a surgical method. When they subsequently searched the literature, they found that a similar technique had been described 35 years earlier in a Ukrainian journal in the Russian language with no English summary.
They honestly gave full credit to the initial inventor: Since the development of this apparatus it has come to our attention that Bykov developed an analogous procedure in Roe, D.
Doe, and S. But take care not to give others credit for your own work. Otherwise the reader will wonder what your contribution was.
The example above was written accordingly. It also tells us the given name of those acknowledged. Persons you want to thank should be asked if they are willing to be acknowledged and if they approve the wording you have Acknowledgements 79 used to mention them.
This is because colleagues who have read and corrected your manuscript may disagree with some of its central points.
To acknowledge them could imply their approval of the content of the paper. But do not thank all grant-giving agencies who have supported your research work over several years past.
Thank only those which supported the study you are now reporting because, just as research teams compete with one another, so too do granting authorities.
And if one authority alone has chosen and supported a promising work, you should give that authority all due credit.
Note that some journals ask that funding organizations be named on the title page instead of being included in the acknowledgments.
The editors of some major biomedical journals therefore had good reason to convene in Vancouver, Canada, in January , to work out a uniform reference style.
One of their suggestions was that authors should number references in the order in which they appear in the text International Committee of Medical Journal Editors Vancouver versus Harvard style?
Most readers prefer the Harvard system because they like to know just what author is being cited as they read the text. Using the Vancouver system, the text above can be condensed to about one-third of its original length: This method was introduced by Aburel in ,1 but he was followed by only a few workers in the succeeding 20 years.
Nevertheless, you have to follow the style of the journal to which the paper is to be submitted. So read the current version of its Instructions for Authors.
Now at last you are ready to submit your paper. At this moment you notice that you have used an inappropriate citation system. Today, this is not a catastrophe.
By using a suitable computer program you can, at the touch of a few keys, produce reference lists in the format of your choice and, in the text, substitute names for numbers or vice versa.
I also take the opportunity to show how to refer to unpublished results and personal communications.
In some submitted papers as many as every second reference was untraceable by direct search. What can an author do to make citations more accurate?
Most misquotations can be avoided by rereading the publications cited. Thus, never rely on memory alone! The number of errors can be reduced by checking and rechecking not only new references but also those lifted from your own computer bank of citations.
Quoting from another article is allowed only if the original publication is unavailable. However, citing a publication you have not seen can be hazardous, as the following illustrates.
For nearly 50 years, several authors of English-language papers referred to a Dr. Uplavici Dobbel Hence, if you refer to a paper you have not read, say so: Amebic dysentery was successfully transmitted from man to cat Uplavici , cited by Kartulis Kartulis is thus held responsible for what he says Uplavici said.
Where you have a choice, avoid quoting sources that are not widely accessible; many books and most conference abstracts of meetings belong to this group.
The citation of abstracts is particularly to be discouraged, as only about one-third of them lead to full-length, peer-reviewed articles Liu Some journals no longer allow the citation of abstracts.
Your own author name Decide early in your career the form in which you wish your name to appear. If you have a common name, it may be wise to use your middle initials in order to be distinguished from other scientists.
Problems of Western names are nothing compared with those in some Asian countries. Here I present only one example, the names of Chinese.
This means that, on average, each of these names is shared by 42 million people! So, to distinguish their names, you have to spell out in full the given names in your reference list.
Given names of Chinese citizens are always placed last, thus after the family name. So: Deng X. Jiang Z. Chung and Felix W.
Such names are referred to in the Western manner: Chung, T. Anonymous You may have to refer to an unknown author in at least two kinds of situation: one involves articles published during the cultural revolution in China and some years afterwards as no author was allowed to appear in an author byline; the other concerns unsigned editorials.
Although anonymous is often the term used in such cases, consider how much more you can convey if you use the method described below.
Fetal sex prediction by sex chromatin of chorionic villi cells during early pregnancy. An unsigned editorial can be referred to in the text as in the following example: Nature editorial and in the list of references: Nature editorial.
An Australian dam project threatens a living fossil. An Australian dam project threatens a living fossil [editorial].
Nature Vurkhu vuzstanoviavaneto sled rodova fractura na kliuchitsata. As the language of the journal is English, the Bulgarian title needs to be translated into English.
The translated title is then placed in brackets and additional information in parentheses. Like the original reference, the following one is written in Vancouver style.
Note that I have placed a diacritical mark over the letter c replacing ch when rewriting the names of the authors, which is the way they themselves have written their names in the English abstract.
To do so is a courtesy. If your computer cannot cope with this mark, insert it by hand, indicate the change in the margin, and inform the editor about it in the covering letter.
You can also provide both a non-English-language title and the translation: Svedin G. Names of journals Abbreviate journals according to the listing in Index Medicus www.
References 89 How to refer to World Wide Web Because a website may be updated after you have seen it, even disappear, you should give the date you accessed the site and also keep a printed copy of it.
Consult the Instructions to Authors of your target journal. In this book I have used the following format in most cases: Animal Info.
Information on rare, threatened and endangered mammals. Severna Park MD : Animal info. Philosophiae Doctor is the highest university degree.
It is acquired after writing a doctoral thesis or dissertation and defending it at an oral examination. There are almost no generally accepted rules for thesis preparation.
However, theses are of two kinds: monographs and compilations of articles. Monographs are the most common form, especially in the humanities, theology, and law.
But compilations are increasingly used in medicine, technology, and the natural sciences. Compilations are of two types.
In one, the reprinted articles are sandwiched between introductory and concluding chapters. In the other, the reprinted articles are appended to a summary of their contents.
Many of the details described in other parts of this book apply to the writing of a thesis in general. So, to avoid tedious repetition, I will discuss only new features here.
The advice is applicable also to other doctoral and postgraduate degrees. Contributors Most research is nowadays performed in groups.
You must do your utmost to indicate clearly what parts of the work were yours. The examiner will be curious to know how much you contributed to the study design, data collection, data analysis, and, especially, writing of the manuscript.
See the next page. Methods: Double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. General introduction You may well have come to know more than anyone else on the planet about your narrow subject, so your general introduction could and should be a highly readable piece of work.
You may, if relevant, go back millions of years in the opening phrases, as in this introduction to a thesis on the use of ultrasound in medical diagnostics Andolf : For millions of years, bats and dolphins have used ultrasound as a method for localization.
It was not until , when the Titanic catastrophe occurred, that scientists proposed that man as well should use ultrasound.
The thesis overview should be intelligible even to a non-specialist. Baranto , for example, devoted 18 pages to introducing the reader to the anatomy of the spine, its function and possible degenerative changes.
This was illustrated by drawings borrowed from a textbook. Such an approach is highly recommended. Do not use abbreviations here; if you do, explain them.
Now, it was time for the overview. We had no word processors in those days! His advice had a point; the methods and the results sections could have been presented in that way.
But if you take parts from your papers you have to paraphrase them, that is, present them in a new way. If you do not, you need quotation marks around the borrowed lines.
As you have already described in detail the methods and the results in your papers, the specialist readers will, in the printed thesis, have access to them there.
Instead, in the overview, present these sections on a non-specialist level. Choose words similar to those you would use in discussing these sections over lunch with a colleague from a speciality other than your own.
Circles can be used in a similar manner; the size of the circles corresponds to the number of subjects or samples.
Overlapping circles can be used to indicate that some studies had a part in common. Design simple drawings to explain your methods.
For the results, it may be useful to construct tables synthesizing data from more than one paper. Color photographs or diagrams are said to enhance an article, but they must add something, not only be decorations.
Use a new subheading for each individual piece. Open the general discussion by explaining how you achieved your aims.
My supervisors Ann-Mari Soe and Samuel Loe for supporting and inspiring me, and sharing their great knowledge in mucosal immunology.
This study was supported by grants from. Most acknowledgments, however, are written in the traditional manner where you thank people individually.
If so, do not forget to thank him or her. I remember an artist showing me a textbook in botany that she had illustrated.
She put her soul into it, she said; but she was not mentioned in the acknowledgments. You are your own editor of your thesis.
You may acknowledge people without their permission, contrary to the custom in papers. Here is an example Naylor : Cover picture: A [.
In comparison, an [. Illustration by Joen Wetterholm. The two rats illustrate the essence of the thesis. Reproduced from Andrew S.
Naylor , with permission from the author; illustration by Joen Wetterholm, JoenArt. The average thesis was based on four papers or articles.
Few papers had more than six authors. Of the four papers or articles, two were published and two were in press, submitted or in manuscript.
Roughly, the thesis overview was 55 pages long reference list excluded and cited on average bibliographic sources. Thesis writing is not.
Give each of them a whole sheet of paper and, if you can restrain yourself, use only one side of the sheet, leaving the back blank.
It will give your dissertation an inviting opening. This approach I found in a technology thesis Synnergren After the presentation of the list, I will give some further comments on it.
A reader outside the speciality would appreciate being told that it means, Cells in the supporting structure of nervous tissue.
I have already described and highly recommended Contributors to the papers and Thesis at a glance. In the heading Materials and methods, Materials should be replaced by Patients or Subjects when appropriate as human beings are not referred to as material.
About two months later, in December l, a letter appeared in The Lancet stating that women receiving thalidomide in early pregnancy for morning sickness frequently had babies with missing or deformed limbs McBride The letter, comprising only 15 lines, ended with the following question: Have any of your readers seen similar abnormalities in babies delivered of women who have taken this drug during pregnancy?
The response was overwhelming. Eventually more than 10 babies in almost 50 countries were born with such defects Thalidomide UK After the publication of the letter, the drug was immediately withdrawn worldwide.
Format and size of a letter Just as in the thalidomide letter, you should be brief and to the point. The length of a letter, however, varies widely from one journal to another.
Read the Instructions to Authors for further information. Letters are of two kinds: those discussing recent articles and those describing preliminary research.
A letter discussing a recent article is usually sent by the editor to the authors of the article discussed, and both the letter and any response will be published together.
Transforming a paper into a letter It was a clear case of hubris. I had submitted a report in the form of a full paper on a single patient to The Lancet.
Of course, the paper was rejected. The original paper had 12 pages of running text, two tables, and 14 references.
We decided to accept the letter format only on condition that the journal managed to include every important piece of information.
The Lancet did Hoyer et al. The huge reduction of text from an original paper to a letter tells us that the format of original papers may sometimes be an uneconomical form of presentation.
For example, the associations between estrogens and endometrial carcinoma Fremont-Smith et al. Unfortunately, most case reports submitted to journals are just another observation of an unusual condition already well known.
The case should instead have been presented at a departmental seminar. No, an acknowledged expert should write the review, often after an invitation.
He or she is supposed to have the experience to evaluate the articles, emphasize the good ones, merely mention others, and, above all, have the courage to exclude works that are below standard.
So which case reports do reach the stage of peer review? And, of course, a case report is appropriate if a new phenomenon has been observed.
Format and size of case reports If you have such a case to report, do it. The structure and size vary widely from one journal to the other.
Consult the Instructions to Authors of the journal you choose. To limit the extent of the bibliography, cite references to comprehensive reviews of the literature.
This was not a joke; the author probably thought he could cheat an overworked editor with this trick. Another case report dealt with an observation made during a routine abdominal operation.
The report shed new light on such cases as would merit publication. The manuscript was returned to the corresponding author who was asked to declare the contribution of each author.
The manuscript was accepted. A case report seldom needs more than two authors, one who made the observation and, if necessary, one who monitored the writing.
However, we should still spell out numbers that begin a sentence. One hundred and sixty-six 4.
Two numbers side by side Placing unrelated numbers next to each other confuses the reader, as in this example taken from Mosteller : This group of patients with leukemia had an average white-cell count of , lymphocytes and other types.
Separate the numbers: This group of patients with leukemia had an average white-cell count of , of which were lymphocytes and other types.
Here is another confusing construction: 2 mg tablets Spell out the number easier to express in words and leave the other in numerical form: two mg tablets Decimal point The decimal sign in English is a point, not a comma: 0.
In many non-English speaking countries, however, the comma serves as a decimal marker. In deference to the editors of such a journals, follow the house style.
Numbers with several zeros Modern standard units of measure go up and down in steps of However, the use of negative exponents has come to stay and we have to get accustomed to it.
Then I found that the total number of patients studied had been no more than So, in fact, only one single patient had received the service!
That mode of presentation contained two errors: the original data were missing, and the number of patients was too small to warrant expression as a percentage.
Note that the percentage is reported in parentheses, to give primacy to the original data. Thus, not 7.
Compare these two statements: 1 Between and the number of legally performed abortions in Sweden increased, from 17 to 33 When presenting numerical data in text, readers feel more at ease with prose description than with actual numbers.
But be careful! So, nonnumerical expressions alone should best be avoided. So a formulation such as the following is not to be recommended quoted from Spiers :.
It requires some years in the profession to grasp immediately that this patient with atherosclerotic heart disease and a history of myocardial infarction, status post-coronary-artery-bypass graft, had an episode of bright red blood per rectum prior to admission for endoscopic retrograde choledochopancreatography!
The abbreviations used in this sentence are probably all accepted in the specialty. But just because an abbreviation is permitted does not mean that you are obliged to use it.
So when should you consider using an abbreviation? Let us take an example. Often such abbreviations are accepted in the major bibliographic databases.
Abbreviations Refrain as far as possible from inventing your own abbreviations. Assume that you have made a study of young mature Sprague Dawley rats.
You are now writing the paper and need to refer frequently to this group. You therefore consider devising a more convenient construction, such as the YMSD rats.
Forget it! The editor will never accept it. So, what to do? Units of measure Units are abbreviated when they follow a numeral.
Otherwise, they are spelled out: 2 mg but two milligrams Singular and plural have the same abbreviation: 1 wk 6 wk not 6 wks An abbreviated unit takes no period unless it ends a sentence: mo not mo.
Abbreviated units need no explanation. Note that hours is abbreviated with a lower case letter. The capital H is the symbol for hydrogen.
That must be for the freaks, I thought, but soon I realized that m meant minutes, not meter. But readers will miss this information if they turn directly from the abstract or introduction to the discussion section, as most readers probably do.
Then, when your study is completed, you will encounter another serious matter: how to present the statistical results.
About half of such presentations contain statistical errors Murray Here are the most common ones.
Using mean when median is meant In a descriptive study on back pain in pregnancy, the women were asked to bend over with their arms hanging down.
This surprising conclusion is the result of reporting asymmetrically distributed skewed data by using mean the average and standard deviation instead of median the value midway between the lowest and the highest value and a percentile range, such as the interquartile range 25th to 75th percentile.
One rule of thumb says that if the standard deviation is greater than half the mean, the data are unlikely to be normally distributed bell-shaped.
In fact, most results in biomedical science are asymmetrically distributed Lang and Secic , It is therefore tempting to describe a set of observations with mean and SEM so as to suggest less variation in the observations.
But to do so is inappropriate, as SEM, rather than being a descriptive term, reports the precision of an estimate of the mean in relation to its unknown value.
SD, on the other hand, measures the spread of individual results around an observed mean. In this case, a 95 percent CI was 2 to 14 mm Hg.
This tells us that the reduction in blood pressure could be as much as 14 mm Hg, which would be clinically important, whereas a reduction of 2 mm Hg would not.
One way to accommodate the multiple testing problem is to adjust the P value by the Bonferroni method, that is, to divide the P value by the number of tests made.
A better approach could be to decide, even in the planning stage, which test is of major interest and focus your attention on this variable when analyzing the data and writing the paper.
The next section deals with subgroup analyses, which pose problems similar to those of multiple testing.
Overinterpretation of subgroup effects In a trial conducted on 16 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction, Collins et al.
Subgroup analyses, however, revealed that the results were applicable only to newborns of women from Sub-Saharan Africa, who had a particularly high perinatal mortality.
How to present statistical results Using relative instead of absolute figures In a large Swedish trial of mammography screening, a 24 percent reduction in mortality from breast cancer was reported.
As breast cancer mortality declined from 0. A third way to present the result would be by giving the Number Needed to Treat in order to protect one of them from the disorder Chatellier In this case, women would have had to be screened regularly for 12 years to prevent a single death from breast cancer.
This way of presenting results is easily understood by both doctors and patients. The relative risk reduction should therefore not be cited without simultaneously indicating the absolute risk reduction or Number Needed to Treat Laupacis et al.
Finally, the results could be expressed also in terms of events per of person-years. A clearer presentation would be: the mean was Some journals do not allow its use.
But P values of 0. Some journals now ask for exact P values when values fall above 0. How to present statistical results 23 Typing On the following pages I will show you a manuscript with a layout that can almost invariably be used as a model when typing your own.
It follows the Vancouver recommendations but, as a model, can be adapted to comply with most other instructions.
Cartoon by Louis Hellman, first published in H. BMJ ; ; reproduced with permission. Again I have used Once upon a time as the running text.
It was double-spaced. Although most authors now double-space the main text of their manuscripts, many appear to regard single spacing as adequate for the reference list.
Yet this is the section in which most editorial changes have to be made. Single-spaced text is impossible to edit clearly.
It was cut originally for the daily newspaper The Times of London. Text set in Times is easy to read and its compact design saves space.
So, Times might be the right choice for you when typing the manuscript. A font size of 12 points is recommended. There is one exception, however.
Helvetica, a sans serif typeface, is considered better for text that is not intended for continuous reading, such as that of graphs.
Exceptions are articles a, the , prepositions on, in , and coordinate conjunctions and, or. Here is an example from N.
The length of the manuscript Editors are biased in favor of short articles. Even hard facts can be explained in a few pages.
A classic example is the report by Watson and Crick on the structure of DNA, which occupies just over one page in Nature, and is understandable even to non-chemists.
As one double-spaced page takes about words, that means a maximum of about 10 to 14 pages of running text. However, presentation of results from certain subjects, such as occupational science, medical ethics, and nursing and health care, may need more space.
Check the Instructions for Authors of your target journal for the number of words allowed. And never exceed that number!
Let us postulate that yours is a page paper. On his way out, he tosses a badly punctuated wildlife manual at the confused waiter and tells him to turn to the section about his species.
The waiter turns to the page and reads: Panda. Large black-and-white bear-like mammal, native to China.
Eats, shoots and leaves. I saw the following passage in the weekly magazine Time. In the absence of appropriate punctuation, it will be misunderstood: Woman without her man has no reason for living, which should read: Woman: without her, man has no reason for living.
Typing 24 Dealing with editors and referees Here is a question from a course participant: Am I entirely left to the tender mercies of the editors and the referees?
Or do I dare to argue for my own view when I feel that the referee might have misunderstood a certain point? Am I impolite if I do so?
In this case the referee happened to be a most eminent researcher in electrophysiology. Try instead to write as though the referee were God the Father Himself.
What I wanted to say here was. I have rewritten this passage to make my point of view more clear. Do referees delay?
Here is another question from a course participant: How big is the risk that the paper goes to a competitor who delays the whole thing?
That referees delay publication while they incorporate the ideas of the refereed work into their own publication is extremely rare.
With few exceptions, referees are honorable men and women. If these words do not allay your fears, what can you do to protect your ideas from being stolen?
But can you be absolutely sure that the person reading your submitted abstract will not leak your ideas before the abstract is published?
No, there can be no such certainty. Unpublished work The referee also known as reviewer must have access to all papers you refer to in your manuscript.
One referee told me in her answer: A lot of what they say is virtually a direct quotation of my own paper. Shortening the manuscript An author had been asked to shorten the text of his manuscript.
In his serious? We agree with you that the paper is much better this way. Accepted or rejected If your paper is accepted, you may receive a preprinted card with a short statement, as I did: Dear Doctor: Your manuscript has been accepted for publication.
It is now being sent to the Publisher and in due time you will receive a proof. I am sure you will readily make an alternative arrangement.
Dealing with editors and referees I was dismayed, but found consolation in the fact that I was not alone. The paper was accepted instead by the editor of Enzymologia.
In , Krebs was awarded a Nobel Prize in recognition of his work. As you know, Popeye gets his strength by eating spinach, assumed to be rich in iron.
This misconception derives from a report indicating, due to a misplaced decimal point, that spinach has an iron content tenfold higher than its true value.
An overlooked error seldom has such amusing consequences, however. How to read proof When you receive your masterpiece, nicely typeset in the form of a proof, you may be tempted to read it straight through at that very moment.
My advice is to follow your intuition. You will be on the alert and will easily notice if the reading makes sense, thus catching errors of omission, such as a dropped line or a lost paragraph.
For the second reading, persuade someone to slowly read the manuscript aloud while you check the text in the proof. Look from manuscript to proof and back again, checking Correcting proofs word by word, numeral by numeral, and punctuation mark by punctuation mark.
Be especially careful in checking the tables and the reference list. Another option that I have heard of but not used is to read the manuscript into a tape recorder and then listen to the recording while looking at the proof.
If you check the proof too hastily, you may live to regret it. I once overlooked a mistyped numeral and afterward had to correct it by hand in reprints.
What to correct The main reason for sending you the proofs is so you may correct the typing errors. At this stage, you are not allowed to polish the prose.
You may, however, correct a serious mistake, such as inconsistency between data in the abstract and in the main text of the paper. The main reason for using an addendum is the ethical aspect of adding to the body of the text some new matter or a revision containing material not seen by the referee.
Here is an example of presentation of new information Federle et al. DR [Digital Radiography] pelvimetry has completely replaced the conventional method at this institution.
But typesetters worth their salt can cope with them all. So there is no need for you to learn more than one system. And the one I recommend is the American system, as, in my opinion, it is the easiest to use.
Unlike corrections in the manuscript, corrections in the proof must be marked twice, once at the point where the error occurs and once in the margin.
You need not know more than the marks given in this chapter; they cover most cases of correction in the average proof. Write the correction beside the instruction and make an appropriate mark in the text to show where the new, corrected material is to be inserted.
Electronic proof Technology now exists whereby those correcting electronic proofs can electronically show correction.
Correcting proofs Table Reproduced, with permission, from P. So, in cases like this, informed consent should be obtained, as recommended by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors Rather, humor can help to convey the message.
Duplicate submission One of my course participants asked: If I submit a paper to a journal, can I at the same time, in a revised form, send a paper same subject, same material to another journal?
Yes, that would be the end! A unanimous jury would give you nothing less than a life sentence for self-plagiarism, as happened to an author who had submitted the same manuscript to two journals in the USA.
Now, what constitutes the originality of an illustration? Here is my own personal view on two cases. I saw the original Viking cartoon in a daily newspaper, top left in Figure I therefore had to obtain permission to publish it bottom in Figure As is often the case, I was required before the publication of my paper to sign a statement transferring my copyright to the publisher, including both text and illustrations.
For example, the copyright owner of Figure The publisher told me so and gave me her address.
Thus, although the copyright often belongs to the publisher, this is not always the case. Permission is needed also to reproduce a table or part of it or to quote text at length say, words or more.
Many publishers give permission freely, but some charge a fee. Most publishers responded to my request for permission within one to three months.
One publisher, however, replied only after ten months and two reminders. Because these forms can be exhaustingly detailed, it may be easier for you to send a request by e-mail.
Use a template Figure The old template in Figure Should you discard it? Your target journal may require access to it.
New York: Oxford University Press. For sale on the Net by amazon. Also available at: www. London: BMJ Books.
Alley, M. New York: Springer-Verlag. Booth, V. Communicating in Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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His house in Oklahoma had full of guys he' d acknowledged growing up in Seats Pleasant, Maryland, though to hear Durant tell it, he' d had few if any friends for the reason that hard-knock town.
His houseguests lived this up at his location and drove his cars towards the clubs, but did very little or nothing to improve their cause or, for instance, his.
Videos surfaced about TMZ: Durant shot using a toy dart by Justin Bieber; a vial of medicinal weed falling out of his truck.
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